Recent Updates

Modified on: 
Nov 16, 2020

Abnormal bleeding may result from defects in platelets, coagulation factors and/or blood vessels. Screening tests for coagulation factor abnormalities include the activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) and Prothrombin Time (PT) / International Normalized Ratio (INR). Thrombocytopenia is the most common platelet defect. Qualitative platelet defects may also occur and, in some cases, may be associated with thrombocytopenia. In patients with platelet defects, bleeding time and/or closure times using the platelet function analyzer (PFA-100/200TM) may be prolonged. Vascular defects may be accompanied by joint hyperflexibility or skin laxity. Effective treatment of hemostatic disorders requires accurate diagnosis and special coagulation testing that may include coagulation factor assays, inhibitor assays, and platelet function tests. An algorithmic approach to diagnosis is beyond the scope of this review.

Transfusion
Modified on: 
Nov 16, 2020

Apheresis involves the removal of whole blood from an individual and its separation into components. A specified component is retained and the remainder is returned to the individual. Therapeutic apheresis is used to treat patients with a variety of disorders and has become a relatively common treatment modality. The rationale and techniques for therapeutic apheresis, as well as the care of the apheresis patient, will be discussed in this chapter.

Transfusion
Modified on: 
Nov 16, 2020

While the practice of transfusion of blood products to neonatal and pediatric recipients has much in common with the transfusion of blood products to adults, there are several important differences and special circumstances. This chapter highlights the most common considerations that are unique to this group of patients.

Transfusion
Modified on: 
Nov 16, 2020

This chapter reviews the testing and treatments that are relevant for mothers and their fetuses/infants during pregnancy and postnatally to reduce the risks of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) and of immune thrombocytopenias.

Transfusion
Modified on: 
Nov 16, 2020

The approach to transfusion in emergent situations varies dramatically depending on the clinical scenario. The primary guiding determinant is the clinician’s assessment of the rapidity of bleeding, the severity of hemorrhage or amount of blood lost, and the clinical stability of the patient. Using the severely injured trauma patient as a case study, this chapter will discuss the principles of massive hemorrhage and resuscitation, with the inclusion of special situations such as obstetrical hemorrhage, where data are available.

Transfusion
Modified on: 
Nov 16, 2020

Pre-transfusion testing ensures compatibility between the transfusion patient and the blood component(s) (red blood cells, platelets, plasma) intended for transfusion. This process includes accurate and thorough completion of the requisition, accurate patient identification, proper collection and labelling of the blood sample from the patient, laboratory testing to determine the patient’s blood group and to identify the presence of red blood cell alloantibodies, and compatibility testing. Pre-transfusion testing is complete when a compatible blood component is identified and labelled for transfusion to the intended patient. This chapter provides an overview of the pre-transfusion tests that are routinely performed.

Transfusion
Modified on: 
Nov 16, 2020

Background

Originally all plasma fractionation products were derived from pooled human plasma. Increasingly, many plasma proteins are manufactured by biotechnology as recombinant proteins, without need for donated plasma; depending on the plasma protein product, either a recombinant or fractionated product, or both are available in Canada.

Transfusion
Modified on: 
Nov 16, 2020

Coagulation factor concentrates are highly effective treatments for patients with hemostatic disorders caused by missing or defective clotting factors. Coagulation factor concentrates may be extracted from pooled donated plasma (plasma-derived) or manufactured using biotechnology (recombinant). In addition, several plasma-derived protein concentrates are available for the treatment of thrombotic disorders and hereditary angioedema.

Transfusion
Modified on: 
Nov 16, 2020

This chapter describes when and how to use the plasma protein product albumin and introduces therapeutic alternatives to albumin.

Transfusion
Modified on: 
Nov 16, 2020

This first chapter of the Clinical Guide to Transfusion provides an overview of the blood system in Canada, the regulations and standards that are in place and the organizations and professionals that, together, ensure transfusion medicine safety for Canadian patients. 

Transfusion

Pages